Vermeidung von Tankstellenbränden

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PTB gibt Tipps für das richtige Verhalten bei Bränden, die in seltenen Fällen beim Betanken von Kraftfahrzeugen auftreten können

Imke Frischmuth, Presse- und Öffentlichkeitsarbeit

 

Das Betanken von Kraftfahrzeugen an Tankstellen ist sehr sicher. Dennoch kann nicht ausgeschlossen werden, dass es in Ausnahmefällen während des Tankens zu Entzündungen von Kraftstoffdämpfen am Tankstutzen kommt. In diesem Fall ist Besonnenheit das oberste Gebot. Wer in Panik das noch laufende Zapfventil aus der Tanköffnung reißt, setzt mit großer Wahrscheinlichkeit das eigene Auto, die Tankstelle oder umstehende Personen in Brand. Da sich in letzter Zeit leider mehrere solcher Unfälle ereignet haben, möchte die Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) Ratschläge für das richtige Verhalten bei derartigen Situationen geben. Erste Regel: Ziehen Sie niemals das noch laufende Zapfventil aus dem Tankstutzen! Zweite Regel: Stellen Sie den Kraftstofffluss ab. Dann geht das Feuer in der Regel schnell von alleine wieder aus oder kann ausgepustet werden.

 

(Foto: Demonstration eines Brandes, der in seltenen Fällen während des Tankens z.B. durch elektrostatische Entladung entstehen kann: Auf dem ersten Bild ist die Entzündung der Kraftstoffdämpfe am Tankeinfüllstutzen zu sehen.  Quelle: PTB)

 

Kraftstoffdämpfe, die beim Tanken austreten, können insbesondere durch elektrostatische Entladungen entzündet werden. Letztere können auf vielfältige Weise entstehen – zum Beispiel durch Reibung der Kleidung auf dem Autositz, durch Defekte oder unfachmännische Reparaturen am Tankeinfüllstutzen oder durch die Montage von No-Name-Reifen, welche die internationalen Anforderungen hinsichtlich elektrischer Leitfähigkeit nicht immer erfüllen. Entsteht auf diese Weise eine Flamme beim Betanken, ist das noch kein großes Problem, wenn möglichst bald der Treibstoffzufluss manuell gestoppt wird oder sich das Zapfventil bei gefülltem Tank von alleine ausschaltet. Die Flamme wird dann in der Regel von allein wieder verlöschen, ohne dass ein Schaden am Lack oder Tanksystem entsteht. Mutige dürfen auch pusten. Richtig gefährlich wird es erst dann, wenn die betankende Person aus Angst vor einer Explosion das noch laufende Zapfventil herauszieht – und dadurch ein wahres Flammeninferno in seiner Umgebung erzeugt.

 

Wissenschaftler der PTB-Arbeitsgruppe 3.73 Physikalische Zündvorgänge haben folgende Hinweise für Autofahrer zusammengestellt:

 

  • Zur Vermeidung elektrostatischer Entladungen beim Betanken sollten Sie während des Tankvorgangs nicht ins Auto zurückgehen, nicht das Zapfventil einer anderen Person übergeben, alle Schäden im Bereich des Tankeinfüllstutzens sofort fachmännisch reparieren lassen und nur Markenreifen verwenden.

  • Nur Ottokraftstoffdämpfe (Benzin) und ethanolhaltige Kraftstoffdämpfe können durch elektrostatische Entladungen entzündet werden. Dieseldämpfe lassen sich so nicht entzünden.

  • Ein Rückschlag der Flammen in das Tankinnere ist nahezu unmöglich, da herkömmlicher Ottokraftstoff zu brennstoffreich ist. Fahrzeuge, die Kraftstoff mit hohem Ethanolanteil benötigen (E85 – E100), sind üblicherweise mit einer Schutzvorrichtung gegen Flammenrückschlag in den Tank ausgestattet.

  • Die PTB rät dringend davon ab, Diesel – wie früher oft empfohlen – mit Ottokraftstoff zu mischen. In diesem Fall entsteht eine explosive Mischung im Tank. Dies ist besonders gefährlich, da das Tankinnere von modernen Dieselfahrzeugen oft nicht zündquellenfrei ausgelegt ist.

  • Sollte es dennoch einmal zu einer Flammenentwicklung beim Betanken kommen, Kraftstofffluss beenden (Loslassen des Zapfhebels oder Lösen der Arretierungsraste oder "Not-Aus" zu der Kassiererin rufen), Flamme anschließend auspusten oder ausbrennen lassen. Das Zapfventil bleibt dabei im Tank.

  • Können Sie den Kraftstofffluss nicht beenden, hört er bei vollem Tank auch von alleine auf, zehn Sekunden später erlischt in der Regel auch die Flamme. Holen Sie jedoch in diesem Fall in der Zwischenzeit einen Feuerlöscher oder den Eimer mit dem Scheibenwaschwasser, für den Fall, dass sich der Lack bereits entzündet hat.

  • Sollte das Feuer schon längere Zeit gebrannt und den Lack entzündet haben, löschen Sie es mit dem Feuerlöscher oder dem Scheibenwaschwasser. Da dabei Löschmittel in den Tank eindringt, ist in der Regel ein neuer Kraftstofftank erforderlich. Das ist immer noch billiger als eine neue Tankstelle.

  

(Foto:  Falsch ist, bei einem Feuer das noch laufende Zapfventil aus dem Tank zu ziehen – der brennende Treibstoff setzt dann die Umgebung in Brand. Quelle: PTB)

 

 

Die PTB hat als Bundesbehörde unter anderem den Auftrag, Arbeitnehmer und unbeteiligte Dritte vor Brand- und Explosionsgefahren durch brennbare Flüssigkeiten zu schützen. In diesem Sinne hat sie bereits 1996 Schutzmaßnahmen für Tankstellen und Kraftfahrzeuge gefordert (DGMK Bericht 508: Vermeidung der Entzündung von Ottokraftstoff/Luft-Gemischen beim Betanken von Kraftfahrzeugen an Tankstellen, zu beziehen über www.dgmk.de), die inzwischen in internationale Regelwerke übernommen wurden. Sie hat ferner in Zusammenarbeit mit dem WDR bereits Filmaufnahmen für das richtige Verhalten bei Tankstellenbränden gemacht ("Bitte nicht nachmachen", 31.7.2007).

 

Ansprechpartner:

 

Dr. Ulrich von Pidoll, Arbeitsgruppe 3.73, Physikalische Zündvorgänge, Tel.: (0531) 592-3431, E-Mail: ulrich.v.pidoll@ptb.de

 

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